Islaam and Muslim: Islaam means Submission to the will of Allaah (swt). Muslim is the one who submits his will to Allaah (swt).
Shia: Allaah is the Only God. Muhammad (sawaws) is the seal of Prophethood (Last Prophet of Allaah). After Muhammad (sawaws) Shias belive in 12 Imams who are from the progeny of Muhammad (sawaws). See the below Hadiths about 12 Imams.
Sahih Bukhari: Narrated Jabir bin Samura: I heard Muhammad saying, "There will be twelve Muslim rulers." He then said a sentence which I did not hear. My father said, "All of them (those rulers) will be from Quraish.” Sahih Bukhari 89.329
Sahih Muslim: Narrated Jabir bin Samura: I heard Muhammad saying, "The (Islamic) religion will continue until the Hour (day of resurrection), having twelve Caliphs for you, all of them will be from Quraysh." Sahih Muslim : Book 020: Number 4477, 4478, 4480, 4481, 4482, 4483
Sunan Abu Dawood: The Prophet said: "This religion remains standing until there are twelve vicegerents over you, all of them agreeable to the nation, all of them from Quraysh." Sunan Abu Dawood : Book 36: Number 4266
Sunan al-Tirmidhi : The Prophet said: "There will be after me twelve Amir (Prince/Ruler), all of them from Quraysh." Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Arabic) Chapter of Fitan, 2:45 (India) and 4:501 Tradition # 2225 (Egypt) Hadith #2149 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)
Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal: Masrooq relates that someone asked Abdullah Ibn Masood, "O Abaa Abd al-Rahmaan, did you ask the Messenger of Allah how many caliphs will rule this nation?". Abdullah Ibn Masood replied, "Yes, we did ask the Messenger of Allah and he replied, "Twelve, like the number of chiefs (nuqabaa) of Bani Israel" Musnad-e-Ahmad, vol 1, pg 398.
Shias 12 Imams
Allaah (swt), The Most High, appointed Twelve distinguished Holy Personalities, one after the other as successors of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (sawaws), starting with the First Holy Infallible Imam Ali Ibin Abe Taalib( as). The 12 Imams are as follows:1.Imam Ali Al Murtuza (as) 2.Imam Hassan Al Mujtaba (as) 3.Imam Hussain Ash Shaheede Karbala (as) 4.Imam Zain ul Aabideen Al Sajjad (as) 5.Imam Muhammed Al Baaqir (as) 6.Imam Ja'far As Saadiq (as) 7.Imam Musa Al Kaazim (as) 8.Imam Ali Al Reza (as) 9.Imam Muhammed Al Jawaad (as) 10.Imam Ali Al Hadi (as) 11.Imam Hassan Al Askari (as) 12.Imam Muhammad Mehdi Al Muntazar (as). Still living and awaiting Allaah's Divine Command of his Second Coming.
Shia Sunni split:
Disagreement broke out over who would succeed Muhammad (sawaws) as leader of the Muslim community. While the Sunnis followed the companions of Muhammad, the Shias followed Ali who was appointed as the Khalifa by Muhammad (sawaws) himself at Ghadeer, saying “Man Kuntu Maulahu Fa Haaza Ali Maula” which means "Of whomsoever I'm his master, this Ali is his master” Imam Ahmad has recorded this tradition related by Bara' ibn 'Azib in his Musnad, vol.4, p. 281. Hazrath Umar congratulating Ali (A.S.) said, "O Ali from today you are my master and the master of every Muslim men and women." [Riazun Nazra, page 169].
Usool e Deen (Roots of the Religion):
Usool e Deen is to be followed by Dalayil, or References. This part of the religion should not be followed blindly but logical reasoning should be looked for, for example, if Allah is one, then one should search for logical reasons, why is allah one, not just blindly follow it.However faith in the unseen is crucial. Usool e Deen are the roots of the religion, without them, religion is incomplete. They include
1.Tawheed (Oneness of Allaah), 2.Adl (Justice), 3.Nabuwat (Prophethood), 4.Imamat (12 Imams) and 5.Qiyamat (The Day of Resurrection).
Furoo e Deen (Branches of the Religion):
Furoo e Deen on the other hand come in later. For Furoo e Deen, references are to be followed, such as the Quran, the sunnah, the ahadith, the teachings of the Prophet (SAW) and his authentic successors, the analytical opinions of a a learned scholar etc, on what they say regarding Haraam and Halal, and ones duties towards Religion. For example, if Quran says keep rozas, we have to keep them at all costs, though there are some exceptions. However, to reach this point, one must determine the authenticity of the Quran, and if proven to his logical thirst, he must abide by it at all costs. If the belief in Usool e Deen is weak, then Froo e Deen are of no use. Froo e Deen includes
1.Namaz (Prayer 5 times a day), 2.Roza (Holy Month of Ramadhan), 3.Haj (Hajj e Kaabatullah), 4.Zakat (2.5%) , 5.Khums (20% or 1/5th), 6.Jihad (Struggling in the cause of Allah), 7.Amr Bil Maruf (Enjoining Good), 8.Nahin Anr Munkir (Forbidding Evil), 9.Tawwala (Loving Ahlul Bayt and his followers) and 10.Tabbara (Disassociation with those who oppose Allaahand those who caused harm to and were the enemies of the Prophet Muhammad or Ahlul Bayt).
What is Muharram and What is Azadari?
The Mourning of Muharram is an important period of mourning in Islam, taking place in Muharram which is the first month of the Islamic calendar.
The event marks the anniversary of the Battle of Karbala (680 AD/ 61 AH) when Imam Hussain ibn Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad (sawaws), and 3rd Imam, was killed by the forces of the Yazid ibne Muawiya (la). The event is marked by arranging 'majalis' (gatherings) to review Islamic teachings and to commemorate Imam Hussain's sacrifice. The mourning reaches its climax on the tenth day, known as Ashura, on which the forces of Yazid killed the 72 individuals who fought, including Imam Hussain and his family and supporters. The women and children left living were made prisoners and transported to Yazid's court in Damascus.
The words Azadari and Majalis-e Aza have been exclusively used in connection with the remembrance of the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (as). Majalis-e Aza, also known as Aza-e Husayn, includes mourning congregations, lamentations, matam and all such actions which express the emotions of grief and above all, repulsion against what Yazid stood for.
Following the battle of Karbala (680 AD), Muhammad's granddaughter Zainab binte Ali and sister of Hussain, began mourning for the Shohadaa e Karbala (martyrs of Karbala) and making speeches against Husayn ibn Ali's opponents Ibn Ziyad and Yazid ibne Muawiya. News of Hussain ibn Ali's shahadat was also spread by Imam Zain ul Aabideen (as) the 4th Imam, who succeeded Imam Hussain, via sermons and speeches throughout Iraq, Syria and Hejaz. This is still practiced by the Shia ulemas who deliver the sermons about the shahadat of Imam Hussain (as) and his family and friends. During the Majlises we learn many teachings of Muhammad (s) and his Ahlul Bayt (as). Alhamdulillah the Azadari e Shohda e Karbala is taken place in every part of the Universe.
Conclusion: Shias Belive in Allaah as the only God. Muhammad (sawaws) as the Last Prophet of Allaah, and Muhammad (s) is the seal of prophethood. Ali (as) as his only successor from whom the Imamat begins (12 Imams). Islaam is the Deen (Lifestyle). Quran is the divine book revealed to Muhammad (s). Shias and Sunnis have the same Quraan (114 Surahs) and there is not even a point difference. Shias follow the Hadith of Muhammad (s) along with the teachings / sayings of Ahlul Bayt (as). Kaaba is the Qibla (direction for prayers). Fasting during Ramadhan. Belief on Qayamat (day of judgement).