We Human Beings have many questions related to Taqdeer (fate or destiny) for example:
Is everything that happens in this world predetermined? Did Allaah, at the dawn of Creation, decide what was going to happen in the human social world? Has He a definitely irrevocable plan for each and every individual? Is our destiny pre decided? Can we change our destiny? Are we inescapably bound to our fate? Can we know what lies in store for us? How does prior knowledge of our destiny affect us?
Here we go with the answers:
The word Taqdeer stems from the three letter Arabic root verb QA DA RA with the basic meanings of 'to measure'. Qadartush shai means ‘I measured the thing'; qadarash shai bish shai is ‘he measured the thing against the (other) thing' etc. From this root word QA DA RA the word Miqdaar (quantity) occurs, and the Qadr (value/standard) occurs. Therefore, taqdeer basically means to make something according to a measure /standard.
Lets see what Islam says about Fate or Destiny.
In Holy Qur'aan Allaah (swt) says: “Say: ‘Nothing shall ever happen to us except what Allaah has ordained for us. He is our Mawlaa (Lord, Helper and Protector).’ And in Allaah let the believers put their trust”[al-Tawbah 9:51]. No matter what disasters befall a person, it is good for him, whether he knows that or not, because Allaah does not decree anything but it is good.
In Holy Qur'aan Allaah (swt) says: Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al Lawh Al Mahfooz). [al-Qamar 54:49]. Belief in al-Qadaa’ wa’l-Qadar (Divine will and decree) is one of the pillars of faith. The Muslim’s faith is not complete unless he knows that whatever befalls him could not have missed him, and whatever misses him could not have befallen him. Everything is subject to the will and decree of Allaah. That's why we say Insha Allaah (if Allaah wills) before telling something.
In Holy Qur'aan Allaah (swt) says: Only those who are patient shall receive their reward in full, without reckoning” [al-Zumar 39:10]. The position of patience in relation to faith is like that of the head in relation to the body. Patience is a noble attribute with good consequences. Those who are patient will have an unlimited reward. Allaah has already written this for us and Allaah is with patient ones.
In Holy Qur'aan Allaah (swt) says: “No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al Lawh Al Mahfooz) before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allaah” [al-Hadeed 57:22]. All the disasters and tribulations that happen on earth, or happen to the individual, or to his wealth or family, etc., were known to Allaah before they happened, He has written them in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet).
In Holy Qur'aan Allaah (swt) says: “Allaah does not burden any human being with more than he is well able to bear: in his favour shall be whatever good he does, and against him whatever evil he does.” Allaah does not examine anyone beyond his/her capability, here capability is a measurement, and Taqdeer means measure/standard. Allaah knows everyone's capability and He decides what, when, to whom, where, etc things has to be given.
Therefore, we can conclude that Allaah has ordained certain standards and measures for the functioning of the Universe. For instance, it is pre-determined for water to solidify at 0 ° C and vaporize at 100 ° C; for fire to burn and scorch and for the Earth to exert gravitational pull, and so on so forth. In the physical world of living matter (plants, animals and humans), Nature has similarly ordained their taqdeer – some animals are herbivores, some are carnivores while Man is omnivore. The Sun, the Moon and all the other astral bodies are likewise bound to their respective taqdeer – their natural life spans and their properties.
But, as has been mentioned before, Man is different from the rest of Creation in having the freedom of choice O Rasool! proclaim to the entire mankind "The truth has come from your Rabb, whosoever chooses may accept it and whosoever chooses may reject it.. (Quran Chapter 18 Verse 29)
Nonetheless, it is to be noted that Man is free to choose an action but they must bear the naturally ordained and pre-determined consequence of that action. If one puts one's finger in fire, one must suffer burns (because that is the taqdeer of that action). After that, one must turn to another action with a different taqdeer – like applying an ointment on the burn.
Similarly, in the human social world, Man is free to choose his actions but must bear the natural consequences of them. The laws governing the physical as well as the human social universe are unchanging and constant. Whosoever follows the Divine Law, even if to a very small extent, and does noble deeds will see pleasant results. And whosoever goes against the law, even if to a very small extent, would get appropriate punishment (Quran Chapter 99 Verse 7-8)
One must act individually or collectively to get results in this universe. To get the desired results, the taqdeer of the Universe and the relating Laws of Nature must be discovered and kept in view at all times. The Natural laws, as we have seen are the standards and measures of things set by Allaah. In other words, they are the aqdaarthe permanent values which run the entire Universe. These aqdaar were given to mankind in one of the darkest hours of its intellectual existence. That is why it has been called laila tal qadr the Night of Values! Historically, the time of the descent of these Permanent Values which are available in the Quran – was the Arab month of Ramadan. That is why that month has been reserved for Fasting, a refresher course of learning self control through studying the natural values given by Allaah through Prophet and Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him and his progeny) in the form of the book we know as the Quran.
Allah is Qaadir (Able) and only He has the Qhudrat of making our Taqdeer. We pray to Allaah (swt) to forgive us and grant us all with a beautiful Taqdeer. Aameen ya Rabbul Aalameen.